Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhumane or degrading treatment or punishment

Special Rapporteur on Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment

HRC 25th Session (11 March 2013) Symbol No. A/HRC/25/60/Add.2 S

Allegations of arrest and detention of, and alleged excessive use of force against, peaceful demonstrators in the Tibet Autonomous Region, against peaceful student demonstrators from Tsolho Technical School in Gonghe (Chabcha in Tibetan) for the release of an official Chinese booklet mocking the Tibetan language and that labeled the self-immolations by Tibetans as “stupidity.” It is reported that security forces fired warning gunshots and tear gas to disperse the demonstrators, 20 students were reportedly injured, five of whom were hospitalized in critical condition, and four students were arrested in the course of the operation.

The Special Rapporteur sent a communication in reference to the alleged arrest of six Tibetan peaceful demonstrators in Zuogang (Tibetan: Dzogang) county in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR); the detention of six monks from the Drakdeb monastery in Mangkang (Tibetan: Markham) county, Qamdo (Tibetan: Chamdo) Prefecture, TAR; the detention and sentencing of a Tibetan student in the city of Lhasa, capital of the TAR; the arrest of five monks, and conviction of three of them, in Chenduo (Tibetan: Tridu) county in Yushu (Tibetan: Kyegudo) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai province; as well as the detention of three Tibetan monks and two lay Tibetan men in Dzachuka area, Serxu (Tibetan: Sershul) County, in Sichuan province.

HRC 22nd Session (12 March 2013) Symbol No. A/HRC/22/53/Add.4

Alleged excessive use of force against peaceful protestors in Luhuo, Seda and Tangtang Counties, Sichuan Province, resulting in injuries and deaths. The Special Rapporteur would like to remind the Government that, under international law, excessive use of force and firearms is not permitted when policing peaceful assemblies.

HRC 19th Session (29 February 2012) Symbol No. A/HRC/19/61/Add.4

Alleged isolation and inadequate medical care in prison. The Special Rapporteur sent a communication in reference to the conditions of detention of Mr. Jigme Gyatso. In its reply, the Government confirmed that Mr. Gyatso was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment and 5 years deprivation of political rights by the Lhasa Municipal Intermediate People’s Court on charges of “threat to national security,” and that while in prison in 2004 Mr. Gyatso was sentenced to 3 additional years of prison on charges of “seeking to divide the country and damage its unity” for his support of Tibetan independence.

The Special Rapporteur sent a communication in reference to the reported detention of at least 33 individuals, including monks and laymen, were detained by security forces while publicly protesting following a demonstration in which ten Tibetans were reportedly killed and one monk, Mr. Phuntsok Jarutsang, set himself on fire.

HRC 16th Session (1 March 2011) Symbol No. A/HRC/16/52/Add.1

Concerning the situation of Mr. Dhondup Wangchen, also known as Dunzhu Wangqing and Dangzhi Xiangqian, co-director of the film documentary “Leaving Fear Behind”. From October

2007 to March 2008, Mr. Dhondup Wangchen interviewed about a hundred Tibetans living in the Tibetan Autonomous region, and made a film based on these interviews, without official authorisation from the authorities. The documentary was later smuggled abroad where it was edited and shared with foreign journalists during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. On 12 July 2008, while held in the guesthouse, he briefly ran away and told an acquaintance that one of his hands became numb due to severe torture. In addition, he said that he had been suffering from hepatitis B, and was denied access to adequate medical treatment. On 28 December 2009, the provincial court in Xining sentenced Mr. Dhondup Wangchen to six years imprisonment. The trial was reportedly held in secret. The Chinese authorities reportedly did not inform Mr. Dhondup Wangchen’s relatives about the trial, nor about the verdict.

HRC 10th Session (17 February 2009) Symbol No. A/HRC/10/44/Add.4

Tsering Dhondup (also called Kanuyin), a 27-year-old Tibetan refugee, Qinghai Province. On 23 February 2008, he was arrested by the Nepal Police in a late-night raid on the Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre, Kathmandu. It was reported that, on 25 February, he was handed over to the Chinese authorities at the Tibet-Nepal border at 4.15 p.m. Tsering Dhundup is alleged to be involved in the killing of a Chinese state official.

Reports of violence during demonstrations in the Tibet Autonomous Region and surrounding areas in China, killings of an unconfirmed number of people and arrests of hundreds of demonstrators. The state reply is available.

Killings, injuries and arrests of protestors in Gan Zi Xian, Sichuan Province, and the arrests of over 570 Tibetan monks, including children, in Aba Xian and in Ruanggui/Zoige Xian the Tibetan Autonomous Region.

Ms. Jamyang Kyi, aged 42, a well-known Tibetan writer and musician, and a writer of women’s issues in Tibet. On 1 April 2008, she was taken away by plain-clothed state security officers from her office at the Qinghai Provincial Television Station in Xining City.

Beating and arrests of several nuns and monks from the Kardze County, Kardze “Tibet Autonomous Prefecture,” the Sichuan Province in Tibet Autonomous Region.

Tsering Dhundup (also called Kanuyin), aged 27, Tibetan national, Qinghai Province. On 23 February 2008, he was arrested by the Nepal Police in a late-night raid on the Tibetan Refugee Reception Centre, Kathmandu. It is reported that Mr. Tsering Dhundup was returned to China without any judicial decision or appeal thereof, and concern is expressed that he may be subject to torture or ill-treatment.

HRC 4th Session (20 March 2007) Symbol No. A/HRC/4/33/Add.1

Five Buddhist monks from Drepung Monastery in Lhasa were arrested following a patriotic re- education ceremony that had been taking place at Drepung Monastery in Lhasa since October 2005. They were handed over to the Public Security Bureau of their respective places of origin after they refused to sign a statement denouncing the Dalai Lama and recognizing Tibet as a part of China. They are currently being held in Public Security Bureau places of detention. There are concerns that they may be subjected to torture or ill-treatment. The state reply is available.

Tsering Dhondup, aged 30, a monk at Sera Monastery, near Lhasa and Changchup Gyaltsen, a disciplinarian at Sera Monastery. In July 2005, the authorities expelled Changchup Gyaltsen from Sera Monastery after he read out a request for prayer, which referred to the Dalai Lama. He was placed under surveillance for a year. Tsering Dhondup, who is alleged to have drafted the prayer, disappeared on the same day. He is thought to be held incommunicado at Gutsa prison in northern Lhasa. The state reply is available.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 62nd Session (10 March 2006) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/2006/6/Add.6

The Special Rapporteur on torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment undertook a visit to China from 20 November to 2 December 2005, at the invitation of the Government.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 60th Session (23 March 2004) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/2004/56/Add.1

Anu (f), a Tibetan tailor, was reportedly taken from her home in March 2001 and initially detained in Sitru, the provincial police detention centre in Lhasa before being assigned to serve three years at Tibet Autonomous Re-education Through Labour Centre (also known as Trisam Centre), in Toelung Dechen County in October 2001. According to the information received, when she was 13 years old, she was severely hit by a military truck while walking to school in Lhasa, as a result of which her right leg had to be amputated. Despite her disability and the fact that she reportedly suffers from acute migraines, she was reportedly forced to work long hours at Trisam Centre and denied access to her family and to medical treatment.

On 13 March 2003, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal concerning Tabo, also referred to as Dape or Dabei, and Didi, both from Lithang in the Kardze (Ganzi) Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture of Sichuan province, who were reportedly arrested on 12 and 14 February 2003 respectively and were allegedly being held incommunicado at an unknown location. There is a state reply for this particular case.

On 5 June 2003, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal concerning the following 18 Tibetans: Yeshi (f), aged 13, Tenzin Nyima, aged 14, Rinchen Dhondup, aged 14, Gyaltsen Wangchuk, aged 14, Lobsang Jampa (f), aged 16, Yoten (f), aged 17, Rinzin Dolma (f), aged 17, Tsultrim Gyatso, aged 17, Thupten Tsering, aged 18, Kelsang Wangdue, aged 19, Tashi Choedon (f), aged 19, Lobsang Phuntsok, aged 21, Tashi, aged 22, Lobsang Tenpa, aged 23, Yeshe Sangpo, aged 23, Lobsang, aged 25, Lobsang Tenphel, aged 28 and Gelek, aged 30. They were all reportedly forcibly returned on 31 May 2003 from Nepal where they had applied for asylum. At least eight of the deportees were allegedly ill. On 30 May, the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) publicly stated that it had strong reasons to believe that the individuals would be of concern to them but that they had been denied access to them to assess their claims.

On 10 June 2003, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal concerning Tamding, a monk who is in charge of the Finance Department of the Sertar Buddhist Institute, Palzin, a monk, Shongdu, a monk from Menyak County, and Ngodup, layman. They were reportedly arrested by officers of thePublic Security Bureau (PSB) of Serthar County, Karze “Tibet Autonomous

Prefecture” (“TAP”), Sichuan Province, on 27 May 2003. There is a state reply for this particular case.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 57th Session (25 January 2001) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/2001/66

The Special Rapporteur transmitted information on the following individual cases in the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR).

Legshe Tsoglam, a monk, was reportedly detained at Gutsa detention centre in early April 1999 after failing to cooperate with a Patriotic Education campaign at Nalanda monastery. He was allegedly severely beaten when he was taken into detention, became ìill and weakî, and died on 12 April, only days after his release from the detention centre.

Ngawang Jinpa, a monk from Ganden monastery, is said to have died on 20 May 1999 as a result of ill-treatment in detention. He had reportedly been released from TAR Prison Number One on 16 March 1999, where he had been serving a four-year sentence.

Gyaye Phuntsog, a senior scholar from Hainan county, was allegedly sentenced to six yearsí imprisonment and subsequently released on medical parole after being ill-treated during interrogation. During interrogation, he was reportedly deprived of food and sleep for several days and was made to stand for long periods. As a result, his legs were said to have been swollen and he was reportedly unable to walk without crutches after his release.

Lobsang Tenzin who is said to be serving a life sentence at TAR Prison Number Two, is reportedly in a very poor state of health. He is said to be unable to stand upright or to carry out prison duties. The deterioration in his health is said to be due to torture he was allegedly subjected to, poor prison conditions and lack of medical attention. Lobsang Tenzin was charged as the principle culprit in the killing of a Peopleís Armed Police officer in Lhasa in 1988.

Sonam Rinchen, who was allegedly imprisoned in 1992 for unfurling a Tibetan national flag and shouting pro-independence slogans, reportedly died in January 1999 while serving a 15-year prison sentence in TAR Prison Number One. His death is believed to have been the result of ill-treatment in prison.

On 29 August 2000, the Special Rapporteur sent an urgent appeal on behalf of Ngawang Choephel, a Tibetan musicologist serving an 18-year prison sentence. The Special Rapporteur transmitted further information on the current state of Ngawang Choephel’s health. He was said to be suffering from a urinary tract infection, as well as liver, stomach and lung disorders. He is reportedly extremely malnourished and his skin is jaundiced.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 55th Session (12 January 1999) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/1999/61

Concerning the situation in Tibet, by the same letter the Special Rapporteur advised the Government that he had received information concerning events that allegedly took place during the first week of May 1998 at Drapchi prison. Prisoners who showed their displeasure at seeing Chinese

flags being displayed to celebrate International Labour Day were reportedly severely ill-treated and tortured by the security forces. Some are said to have died from their injuries. Since then, all the prisoners involved in the protest were allegedly being held in solitary confinement and subjected to harsh interrogation involving ill-treatment.

On 10 December 1998, the Special Rapporteur sent, in conjunction with the Special Rapporteurs on freedom of opinion and expression, and on violence against women, an urgent appeal on behalf of two Tibetan nuns, Ngawang Sangdrol and Ngawang Choszom, who are currently detained in Drapchi prison in Tibet. They are said to be in extremely poor physical condition, after having been subjected to harsh interrogation and ill-treatment. The state replies for several cases are available.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 54th Session (24 December 1997) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/1998/38/Add.1

Tashi Dawa, a 17-year-old student at Dhanak Lomthen High School in Dranang, and a classmate, Nima, were reportedly reprimanded by police in December 1992, for stating that Tibet was not a province of China and demanding more Tibetan teachers. Following their expulsion from school, together with 31 other students who had joined their protest, police officers reportedly took the students to a storeroom. There, they allegedly branded Dawa, Nima and a third student on the bridge of the nose with a hot iron rod. Dawa and Nima were then reportedly taken to Lokha prison and held for three months, during which they were said to have been beaten regularly. Nima allegedly sustained a broken leg and Dawa was said to have been beaten with rifle butts on the head.

Lama Kyap, teacher at a school in Siling which emphasizes Tibetan language and culture, was reportedly arrested one month after the school had been opened with official permission in June 1993. He was allegedly detained for 32 days at Qinghai Hu Zhu district prison. He was allegedly severely beaten, kicked, pressed for one half-hour with electric cattle prods, and struck repeatedly with rods on his head. His airtight room was reportedly sprayed with insecticide, forcing him to inhale the chemical for two days and causing sores in his throat. Following his release he was reportedly hospitalized for 21⁄2 months.

Tsering Youdon, a 16-year-old girl, was reportedly arrested at her home in Lhuntse on 29 February 1994, following the arrest of the headmaster of her school. While interrogated at the police station as to whether the headmaster had taught her to demand independence for Tibet, a hot iron was allegedly placed firmly on her leg and left there for five minutes. She was reportedly also thrown against a desk, resulting in injuries to the head, and kicked in the stomach.

Thubten Tsering, a teacher who protested in March 1994 to the authorities in Meldrogongkar that students were not receiving sufficient instruction in the Tibetan language and led a demonstration for this purpose, was reportedly arrested together with 60 other demonstrators. He was reportedly detained for six months, with his hands and feet shackled, at the prison in Meldrogongkar. He was said to have been beaten every other day. For a substantial portion of his detention he was reportedly held in a concrete box the size of a coffin. He was reportedly released without having been taken to court and was forbidden from resuming his teaching duties.

Tenzin Yangzom, a nun, was reportedly arrested on 10 June 1994 after she had affixed a poster declaring Tibetan independence and a Tibetan flag to the main government building in Lhoka

district. At the Tsethang Detention Centre, a police officer allegedly pushed her onto large, jagged stones. For five months she was reportedly kept in a cell smeared with faeces and urine. During the weekly interrogation she was allegedly beaten and shocked repeatedly with cattle prods to her stomach, breasts, back, face and arms. She was also allegedly punched and kicked and trampled upon with boots. After the five months, she was reportedly convicted at Tsethang People’s High Court of being a “counter-revolutionary” and was sentenced to a three-year prison term. She was reportedly released for medical reasons, but forbidden to resume her life as a nun.

On 7 October 1997 the Special Rapporteur transmitted an urgent appeal on behalf of Jampel Tendar, a Buddhist monk from Gongkar Choede monastery, near Lhasa, Tibet Autonomous Region. He was allegedly arrested in June 1997 after having declared his support for the Dalai Lama and detained at a detention centre in Tsethang and the Gutsa detention centre. He was said to have been beaten during arrest and in detention.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 53rd Session (20 December 1996) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/1997/7/Add.1

Wandu and his 13-year-old son were reportedly detained by the Nepalese authorities around 24 October 1994, after they had attempted to cross the border at Zhangmu. They were subsequently turned over to the Chinese authorities, who allegedly beat them repeatedly with sticks on the legs.

Dudul Dorje, a nomad from Jyekundo (Yushu) in Qinghai province, and 12 other persons were reportedly beaten with electric batons during interrogation by police, following their detention in Dram, near the border with Nepal, in November 1994. They were subsequently transferred to Lhasa and held for four months, under accusation of separatism. Dudul Dorje was questioned up to three times per day, during which time he was allegedly beaten and given electric shocks.

Norbu, Dondrup and Jamyang Phuntsog, arrested by PSB officers in Lhasa in January 1995, were allegedly interrogated under torture over nine days at the branch police station in Kyires, including by application of electric shocks through wires to their thumbs and beatings with electric batons while tied to a pillar.

Kunchog Tenzin was reportedly arrested in February 1995 and allegedly beaten severely at Nagchu prison, as a result of which his hands became disfigured and his back was injured permanently. He was said to be subsequently unable to stand erect.

Chungla (female), a resident of Nepal, was reportedly detained on 5 April 1995 by PSB officers in Dram, after she had crossed into Tibet to conduct business affairs. In police custody at Shigatse she was allegedly tortured under interrogation by means of beatings with electric batons, which caused her to lose consciousness several times. She was later taken to Nyari prison and detained without trial for almost four months.

Sherap Wangmo (female) was reportedly beaten severely by three named officials in April 1995 in Drapchi prison, where she was serving a three-year sentence.

Sherab Dragpa, a monk from Kham, was reportedly detained with a number of other persons in April 1995, following their deportation from Nepal. They were held at the police station in Dram

for seven days and at a military camp for another eight days, during which time they were allegedly deprived of food. They were subsequently transferred to Shigatse for eight days, where they were allegedly kicked and beaten with sticks and electric batons during interrogation.

Tsondrup, a nun from Tingri, was reportedly arrested in May 1995 while trying to cross into Nepal at Zhangmu. During ten days of interrogation at a prison in Zhangmu she was allegedly beaten repeatedly on the legs with iron rods.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 52nd Session (16 January 1996) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/1996/35/Add.1

Gyaltsen Kelsang, a nun, was reportedly beaten following her arrest from Garu nunnery on 14 June 1993. While serving a two-year term at Drapchi prison in Lhasa for participation in a pro- independence demonstration, she was allegedly beaten severely and as a result was confined to bed for 20 days. Soon after being diagnosed at a police hospital in November 1994 as suffering from severe kidney problems, she lost movement in her lower limbs and developed speech impairment. She was eventually sent home on medical parole and later spent nine weeks at the Tibetan medical hospital. She died on 20 February 1995, seven days after her release from hospital.

Lodroe Gyatso, a professional dancer serving a sentence of 15 years in Drapchi prison, was allegedly beaten severely on 4 March 1995, after he had distributed pro-independence literature and shouted slogans in the prison. He continued to receive daily beatings in a confinement cell measuring six feet by six feet. The Middle People’s Court reportedly recommended to the Higher People’s Court that he be executed for his political actions in the prison.

Khetsul and Yeshi Pema, from Lhundrup county, and Ngawang Drozler and Gyaltsen Wangmo, from Lhokha, were among five nuns who were reportedly arrested on 8 February 1995 after engaging in a protest outside the Jokhang temple. They were allegedly beaten severely during their arrest.

Pasang and Ngodrup, both monks from Jokhang, were reportedly arrested on 8 January 1995 and severely beaten over the course of three days in Gutsa Detention Centre in Lhasa. Pasang suffered severe back pain and was unable to stand as a result of his treatment. The monks were allegedly threatened with further punishment if they revealed information about the treatment that they had received.

Lobsang Palden, Chimé Dorje, Pema Tsering, Jampa Tashi, and Lobsang Tsegyal, monks from the Serwa monastery, reportedly removed two nameplates and affixed pro-independence posters to the headquarters of the Lingkha district people’s government, Pashö county, and later shouted slogans and affixed posters to the walls of other government and military offices on 29 March 1994. They were arrested, after which they were allegedly kept suspended by their thumbs at the gate of the county public security bureau and beaten severely during interrogation. They were subsequently sentenced to terms of imprisonment.

The Special Rapporteur communicated the cases of beatings of juveniles in Tibet described in the following paragraphs.

Champa Tsondrue and Lobsang Choezin, both 17-year-old novice monks at Ganden Choekhor monastery in Penpo Lhundrup county, were reportedly arrested on 20 June 1994 after participating in a peaceful demonstration at the Barkhor in Lhasa. They were allegedly beaten severely by security officials and taken to Gutsa Detention Centre.

Tenzin Dekyong, a 16-year-old novice from Michungri nunnery, was reportedly arrested on 13 March 1993 during a peaceful demonstration. She was allegedly beaten and taken to Gutsa Detention Centre.

Pema Oeser, a 16-year-old novice form Nagar nunnery in Lhundrup county, was reportedly beaten after being arrested with three other nuns on 17 August 1993 during a demonstration in Lhasa.

Dhundup Gyalpo, a 17-year-old monk, was reportedly arrested on 26 June 1993 outside Gyaldon monastery, Lhundrup county, during a protest against the arrest of a boy accused of posting pro- independence materials. Dhundup Gyalpo was allegedly beaten by police and threw stones at them in response. He was said currently to be serving a three-year administrative sentence.

Sherab Ngawang, a 12-year-old novice from Michungri nunnery, was reportedly arrested on 3 February 1992 during a peaceful demonstration in Lhasa. She was taken to Gutsa Detention Centre and allegedly beaten. She was sentenced in May 1992 to three years’ “re-education through labour” and sent to Trisam Re-education through Labour Detachment.

In the 4 October letter, the Special Rapporteur also transmitted the cases summarized in the following paragraphs.

Rigzin Tsultrim, reportedly arrested in May 1993 during a demonstration near the Barkhor in Lhasa, was allegedly kicked, beaten and subjected to shocks to his face with an electric baton.

Sonam Tashi was reportedly arrested on 26 May 1993, after having participated in a demonstration at the Barkhor the previous day. Over the course of a number of interrogation sessions, he was allegedly beaten severely and as a result sustained multiple internal injuries. He was released from prison in late 1994, but died in early 1995, allegedly from the injuries he had sustained during interrogation.

Tamdin Tsering was allegedly beaten to death on 7 September 1994 by four forestry officials while he and his family were tending their potato farm in Linyen county of Laodu district in Amdo province.

Jigme Gyatso, a monk from Tsayu township in Xiahe, was reportedly detained on 19 May 1995 by the Xiahe county police on suspicion of involvement in putting up pro-independence posters at Labrang monastery in Amdo. He was allegedly beaten severely, as a result of which he has become partially paralysed, unable to move his arms and legs. Doctors at the Xiahe county hospital were said to have refused to treat him because of his political record. He was later admitted to the traditional Tibetan medical hospital for treatment.

COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 50th Session (12 January 1995) Symbol No. E/CN. 4/1995/34

The Special Rapporteur also sent the cases of alleged torture in Tibet summarized in the following paragraphs.

Phuntsog Yangki, a nun reportedly serving a five-year sentence in Drapchi prison for participating in a pro-independence demonstration, was allegedly beaten severely for singing nationalist songs with other nuns on 11 February 1994. She died in the Police Hospital in Lhasa on 4 June 1994, allegedly as a result of the beatings. An investigation that would conclusively establish the cause of death was impossible as her body was cremated, against the wishes of her family.

Gendun, his brother Tobgyal, Tse Tse, Tsetob, Apho, and Tenzin were arrested at the Bu Gon monastery in Dragyab (Chagyap) on 9 February 1994, during the Lokhor Gonchoe Chemoe festival. The detainees were allegedly placed on trial at a rally called by officials, at which they were promised that if they declared that “Tibet is not independent”, they would receive no punishment. Upon refusing to make the declaration, they were reportedly separated and taken either to a prison in Chamdo or to the district prison at Dragyab, where they were allegedly tortured with electric cattle prods. Tenzin and Tobgyal were said to have been released, but the other detainees were reportedly continuing to undergo ill-treatment in prison.

Lhadar, a monk from Darze Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, was reportedly arrested with four other monks on 20 August 1993 for hanging pro-independence wall posters in Lithang region. He was allegedly beaten and tortured to death at Lithang district prison, although the authorities reportedly maintained that he had committed suicide in custody.

Sonam Tsering, a member of the Tsholho Dance and Drama Troup, was detained on 17 July 1993 by Chinese officials who were investigating the distribution of protest pamphlets. After refusing to respond to interrogation at the police station, he was allegedly made to sit naked on a chair on his knees with his hands cuffed behind his back, had electric shocks applied to his face, neck, hands, legs, and lower back, and was beaten. During 10 days of detention, he was subjected to a three-hour interrogation session each day, with beatings and electric shocks during six of the sessions.

Deng Ge, a teacher, Hong Ke and Meng Sha, mid-level Tibetan officials, and an unidentified monk were reportedly severely beaten with a spiked wooden implement at the police station in Markham, Chamdu prefecture, Kham. The four were arrested after Deng Ge had tried to intervene when the other three were being beaten by police with fists, feet, iron bars and bricks outside a cinema in Markham. Deng Ge reportedly passed out and required hospitalization.

June Lhapka, a primary school teacher from Nemo village, was allegedly beaten during or shortly after her arrest on 21 June 1993 and was said to have been in a serious condition.

Rigzin Choedron, also called Kunsan Choekyi, was arrested on 22 September 1989 during a political demonstration in Lhasa and allegedly beaten in Gutsa detention centre, resulting in kidney damage. After spending three years in Trisam Labour Re-education Centre, she was released in September 1992 with wounds and abscesses on her back and damage to one kidney. She died on 10 October 1992, possibly as a result of ill-treatment suffered in detention.

The following persons, detained for political reasons in Drapchi prison, Lhasa, were reported to suffer from serious illness as a result of or exacerbated by mistreatment or heavy physical labour performed in prison:


(b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

Ngawand Kunga, a monk from Drepung, who was allegedly forced to run with a stone on his back in 1990 or 1991, was said to suffer from liver problems. According to the Government he had completed his sentence and been released;

Phuntsog Dorje was said to suffer from kidney problems as a result of heavy labour. According to the Government, he was in good health;

Lobsang Tsondru, a monk in his 70s, was allegedly beaten by troops during an April 1991 prison protest, and was said to suffer from heart trouble. The Government replied that he was in normal health;

Ngawang Samten, a monk from Drepung, was said to suffer from swollen joints as a result of hard labour. The Government replied that no such person was a prisoner in Drapchi;

Tsering was said to have become deaf as a result of a severe beating. According to the Government he was in good health;

Tanak Jigme Sangpo, who had allegedly been put in solitary confinement in a cold cell in 1991 and 1992 after a protest, was said to suffer from high blood pressure.

Phuntsog Gyaltsen, a Buddhist monk serving a 12 year prison sentence in Drapchi prison in Lhasa, was reportedly seriously ill and incapacitated, suffering from liver and stomach ailments as a result of sustained beatings received in prison. Despite the state of his health, he was allegedly being forced to perform prison labour, such as digging, emptying toilets and cultivating vegetables. He was said to be in need of urgent medical attention (15 June 1994).


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